Conceptualising nationalism, revolution and opposition in political discourse by use of metaphors: The case of Raila Odinga in Kenya
Keywords:attitude, governance, metaphor, political discourse, revolution
This paper utilises a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse the different metaphors manifest in Raila Odinga's utterances during political rallies at varied periods in Kenya's history that portray nationalism, revolution and opposition. Raila Odinga is one of Kenya's leading political players and Africa's contemporary revolutionist. He has played a major role in shaping, informing, influencing and maintaining a public attitude towards political leadership and governance in Kenya and Africa. Political discourse needs to be very persuasive in order to win votes and move people, hence we discuss how Raila uses metaphors to persuade and move crowds in an effort to further the themes of revolution, nationalism and patriotism. It is therefore important to study Raila's language use to establish how he epitomises nationalism, revolution and opposition in the country and region. Studying the political discourse of those in power is important because language is a powerful tool that shapes and informs society's behaviour and attitudes. Moreover, language is capable of making war or peace. Language also has power to make presidents. Political discourse thus has implications for the socio-economic development of society. It shifts quite often to guarantee some policy or policy-makers’ survival. The findings of this study indicate that the metaphors served to arouse people’s emotions in regard to the revolutionary and opposition activities while keeping the horrors and negatives of the clamour for political change concealed.
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