Deixis in KamaNu and Karimi’s Kimeru song and dance lyrics



deixis, linguistic, lyrics, pragmatics, song and dance


This study sought to examine the semantic roles of the deictic expressions in KamaNu and Karimi’s Kimeru song and dance lyrics by finding out the types of deixis in these song and dance lyrics and, secondly, establishing the semantic roles of these deictic expressions. The study, which adopted a descriptive qualitative research design, was carried out in Meru and Nairobi Counties in Kenya. The target population consisted of two native Meru artists. Data from twelve songs, six from each artist, were generated through six video recordings, observation, and note-taking of the actual live performances at social functions: three for each. Through Cruse’s theory of deixis, the study established that Kimeru song and dance lyrics by KamaNu and Karimi utilized person, spatial, temporal, and social deixis in their songs, with person deixis predominating. Deixis, in these songs, serve to engage the listeners and structure the discourse. The study recommends listeners to pay more attention to these expressions for an appropriate discernment of the intended meaning as these expressions carry implicit messages rather than explicit and can thus be interpreted uniquely in different contexts. It is hoped that the study will advance the body of knowledge by bringing academic focus to fostering a deeper comprehension of deixis in songs and dances.


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How to Cite

M’Rithara, K., Kirigia, E. K., & Ondisa, E. M. (2023). Deixis in KamaNu and Karimi’s Kimeru song and dance lyrics. Journal of Languages and Linguistics (JLL), 2(1), 54–61.